Here is a rate sheet sent to me today . . . .
Here is the 2008 Rates sheet for Siemens. You may download the complete sheet, including general terms and conditions – Siemens Labor Rates 2008. (Any updated rate sheets are appreciated). Pat
SOmetimes it is necessary to replace a component on a circuit board. The first step is to identify the component, who made it, and what its number is. The following article (that I found at UCHOBBY.com) helps in this functions. Links toward the ens lead you to places that help you identify the logos of various manufacturers, since their names are rarely on the components. Pat
How-to identify and locate information for electronics components you can recycle from discarded gadgets. Brandon gives us example pictures and descriptions for most types of electronics components to help you stock up your home electronics lab. This is a must read for new electronics hobbyist.
This article was submitted by Brandon Uhlig as part of the “Hobby parts for articles ” program. Brandon receives a Modern Device Company Bare Bones Arduino Kit for this fantastic article. Let Brandon know that you appreciate articles such as this by posting a comment. I hope to see many more articles like this one here at uC Hobby.
Scrounging for parts is a great way for hobbyists to save some money. You can get tons of parts out of discarded or unused electronics. But how do you identify all those parts? This article will give you some ideas on where to start.
The focus will be on common reusable through-hole components hobbyists will be most likely to scrounge and re-use.
Obviously, this is by no means a complete list, there are way to many different electronic components to put into a quick guide, but maybe this will give you some ideas to narrow down your search on an elusive component.
Resistors are one of the most used components in a circuit. Most are color coded, but some have their value in Ohms and their tolerance printed on them. To identify values, you can check out the Electronic Assistant software found in the Free Electronics Hobby Software article here on uC Hobby, or find one of the many online tools. A few of them can be found at http://www.electronics2000.co.uk/ in the Calculators section. A multimeter that can check resistance can also be helpful, providing the resistor is already removed from the board (measuring it while still soldered in can give inaccurate results, due to connections with the rest of the circuit). They are typically marked with an “R” on a circuit board.
Potentiometers are variable resistors. They normally have their value marked on them, normally marked with the maximum value in Ohms. Smaller trimpots may use a 3-digit code where the first 2 digits are significant, and the 3rd is the multiplier (basically the number of 0′s after the first 2 digits). For example, code 104 = 10 followed by four 0′s = 100000 Ohms = 100K Ohms. They may also have a letter code on them indicating the taper (which is how resistance changes in relation to how far the potentiometer is turned). They are typically marked with an “VR” on a circuit board.
Capacitors are also very commonly used. A lot have their values printed on them, some are marked with 3-digit codes, and a few are color coded. The same resources listed above for resistors can also help you identify capacitor values. They are typically marked with an “C” on a circuit board.
Inductors, also called coils, can be a bit harder to figure out their values. If they are color coded, the resources listed for resistors can help, otherwise a good meter that can measure inductance will be needed. They are typically marked with an “L” on a circuit board.
Crystals and Oscillators are also fairly easy to identify by sight. Most are clearly marked with their operating frequency printed on them. They are typically marked with an “X” or a “Y” on a circuit board.
Relays are typically enclosed in plastic, and many have their specs printed on them. They are typically marked with an “K” on a circuit board.
Transformers are normally pretty easy to identify by sight, and many have their specs printed on them. They are typically marked with an “T” on a circuit board.
Batteries are also pretty easy to identify, and are well marked with their specs.
Fuses can be easy to identify, and typically have their voltage and amperage rating marked on them.
Semiconductors, such as Diodes (typically marked with an “D” on a circuit board).
Transistors (typically marked with an “Q” on a circuit board),
Bridge Rectifiers (typically marked with an “BR” on a circuit board)
Integrated Circuits (typically marked with an “U” or “IC” on a circuit board), can take a little more work to figure out what they are. Many different types can use the same packaging, so they all can’t be identified by just their looks. In most cases the information you need is found in the device’s datasheet. The datasheet is a document containing the specs on the device and many will include example circuits, links to app notes, and other valuable information. They are typically in a .PDF format. If you have never used a PDF file before, you will need a PDF reader to open it. A couple of free ones can be found below.
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html (Adobe Reader)
http://www.foxitsoftware.com/pdf/rd_intro.php (Foxit Reader)
To find a datasheet, you first need to find some info on the part. Luckily, they have part numbers which can be used to help identify them. They may also have the manufacturers logo on them. Finding the manufacturer can be extremely useful as the most up-to-date information is usually available on their website. For help in finding the manufacturer based on their logo, check out the following sites. They also include links to the manufacturer’s websites. Datasheets can normally be found under the support/download section, or you can put the part number in their search bar.
If you can’t find any information on the manufacturer, or are unable to find a datasheet on their website, you do have a few more options. There are several search engines on the web to help locate datasheets. Some free ones are listed below. You can search by part number, or even by a partial part number.
If those fail, you can try using a search engine such as google. Adding “pdf” to your search string can slim down the results, reducing the amount of sites just selling the part with no other useful information. There is also a chance of finding no information on a particular part. Some manufacturers will produce special order parts with “house” numbers, which can mean nothing except to the company that actually purchased them.
There are also many other components you may want to scrounge off a board, but may be difficult to find specific information on. They may not be marked, but you can find some good general information on the web to help you out.
And now for a little test See how many components you can identify on the following board. Answers can be found by scrolling below the board – No cheating!
2 Piezo Buzzer
7 Integrated Circuits (IC’s)
The tiny Caribbean country of Antigua has received official permission to violate US copyright law. If it stands, it may become the place where the service literature of US-manufactured medical devices may be legally housed. Read below for the details of this confusing situation. Pat
LONDON (AP) — Americans call it piracy. Antiguans call it justice.
The islands of Antigua and Barbuda are threatening to strip intellectual property protections from American goods as part of a long-running trade dispute over the U.S. embargo on the tiny Caribbean nation’s online gambling industry.
U.S. officials say the proposed copyright haven – whose broad outlines were approved Monday at the World Trade Organization in Geneva – amounts to “government-authorized piracy.” But Antiguans, who’ve won a series of legal victories against the U.S. at the international trade body, reject any suggestion that they’re pirates.
“We have followed the rules and procedures of the WTO to the letter,” Antigua’s high commissioner to London, Carl Roberts, said in a statement Monday. “Our little country is doing precisely what it has earned the right to do under international agreements.”
The U.S. and Antigua have been tussling for years over the ability of Americans to use online casinos based in the Caribbean nation. U.S. laws have long been interpreted to mean that Internet gambling is illegal if it crosses state lines.
The World Trade Organization, however, has come down on Antigua’s side. In 2007, it allowed the islands to draw $21 million a year’s worth of “nullification or impairments” from the United States as a penalty for the continuing refusal of the U.S. to allow American customers to place their online bets in Antigua.
Antiguan officials say they could make up the money through the operation of a copyright haven, although what that might look like and what its scope would be remains unclear. Antiguan officials have kept details vague and the move has little precedent.
Observers have suggested, for example, a subscription service to access copyright-free American music, or a pay-per-download site that charges pennies for Hollywood hits.
Mark Mendel, a lawyer for Antigua’s government, cautioned that whatever ends up being set up, it wouldn’t be an Antiguan version of The Pirate Bay, the free-for-all file sharing site whose name has become synonymous with illegal downloads.
“We aren’t going to be flaunting the rules,” he said in a telephone interview last week. “It’s not piracy if you have the right to do it.”
Right or wrong, American businesses aren’t happy with the idea. Gina Vetere, with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce‘s intellectual property center, said such a move would only exacerbate the dispute and “sour the business environment.”
The haven may still never see the light of day; Mendel said Antigua’s goal remains a negotiated settlement with U.S. authorities over the gambling dispute.
Even if such a haven were set up, international fans of free downloads may want to exercise caution. Antiguans may be allowed to download freely, but for those outside the country the legal regime remains murky.
Nevertheless, the notion of a country of 89,000 people standing up to the powerful United States on intellectual property matters has caught the imagination of many – especially those who believe that U.S. copyright rules are too restrictive.
“It’s time for small countries to be treated fairly in these organizations,” said Mendel.
I don’t call it a “horror” story, more of an unfortunate life experience. Many years ago I was involved in a case where a physician was suing a manufacturer, physician practice and the hospital concerning an alleged laser filter malfunction. Since I responded to the initial call I was designated the hospital representative. At one point the hospital attorney said that if the jury found the hospital guilty, it would be because they found me guilty. Anyhow, I spent the better part of 4 weeks in a courtroom and about 4 hours on the stand (in week 3). About 15 minutes into my testimony it was obvious to me that speculation of any kind is not a good idea on the witness stand. I took a deep breath, told what I knew and admitted there was a LOT I didn’t know. It turns out, that was OK. Lawyers ask a lot of questions…some good, some silly…it is how the process works. There is no way in the world anyone is going to be able to predict the kind of situations that will come their way, so don’t spend needless time worrying about it. Understand what you do, do it the best you can, and be willing to admit and fix mistakes as you go.
BTW, after 4 weeks it took the jury about 2 hours to deliver a not guilty verdict for all the defendants.
We have a Sterrad 50 that was stored for 6 months and the user wants to put it back into service for another 6-10 months before they replace it. Sterrad wants $10k to do a PM and replace many PM parts, due to age.
We want to just perform a PM to see if it passes now, without the major PM parts replaced. Does anyone have the procedure that we could evaluate to see if we want to put it into service or not?
Thanks for your help or ideas on this issue.
Biomedical Technology, Inc.